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The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark

Mount Hood, Oregon
 
Mount Hood from Lost Lake


Mount Hood, Oregon:
Mount Hood dominates the Cascade skyline from the Portland (Oregon) metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties. Mount Hood is 11,245 feet high, is the fourth highest peak in the Cascades, and the highest in Oregon. The mountain contributes valuable water, scenic, and recreational resources that help sustain the agricultural and tourist segments of the economies of surrounding cities and counties.


Eruptive History:
Mount Hood is one of the major volcanoes of the Cascade Range and is more than 500,000 years old. The volcano has grown in fits and starts, with decades to centuries of frequent eruptions separated by quiet periods lasting from centuries to more than 10,000 years. Eruptive activity at Mount Hood during the past 30,000 years has been dominated by growth and collapse of lava domes, with the last two episodes of eruptive activity occurred 1,500 and 200 years ago. The last episode ended in the 1790s, shortly before the arrival of Lewis and Clark in 1805, and consisted of growth and collapse of a lava dome that sent numerous pyroclastic flows down the south and west flanks. Crater Rock is the remnant of that dome.


Lord Samuel Hood:
Mount Hood was named after a British admiral, Lord Samuel Hood, and first described in 1792 by William Broughton, a member of an expedition under command of Captain George Vancouver.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1993, Mount Hood and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1795, Pacific Northwest and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1804, Pacific Northwest and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1805, Pacific Northwest and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1833, Illman and Pilbrow, Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1837, Columbia River with Mount Hood, click to enlarge Map, 1841, Wilkes, Columbia River with Mounts Rainier, St. Helens, and Hood, click to enlarge Map, 1841, Wilkes, Columbia River with Mounts St. Helens, Hood, and Jefferson, click to enlarge Map, 1849, Alexander Ross's Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Cascade Range to Walla Walla, click to enlarge Map, 1860, Columbia River, Washington, Oregon, click to enlarge Map, 1911 USGS topo map of Mount Hood, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Mount Hood, and Mount Jefferson, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River Gorge, Mount Hood, Mount Adams, and Mount St. Helens, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1997, Columbia River, Mount Hood, and Mount Adams, click to enlarge Engraving, 1848, Mount Hood and Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge Engraving, 1850, Fort Vancouver and Mount Hood, click to enlarge Engraving, 1853, The Dalles, Oregon, with Mount Hood, click to enlarge Image, 1867, The Dalles, Oregon, and Mount Hood, from Rockland, Washington, click to enlarge Engraving, 1874, Mount Hood from the Columbia River, click to enlarge Engraving detail, 1879, Portland Oregon and Mount Hood, click to enlarge Engraving detail, 1884, The Dalles and Mount Hood, with Mill Creek, click to enlarge Engraving detail, 1890, Portland Oregon and Mount Hood, click to enlarge Penny Postcard, ca1910, Mount Hood as seen from above the Klickitat River, click to enlarge Penny Postcard, ca.1915, Mount Hood from The Dalles, click to enlarge Image, ca.1925, Mount Hood, The Dalles, from Big Eddy, click to enlarge Image, Mount Hood and the Maryhill Museum, click to enlarge Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Timberline, click to enlarge Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Lost Lake, click to enlarge Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, with Portland in the foreground, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, from Blurock Landing, Washington Image, 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, from Maryhill Museum, Washington Image, 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, from Ryan Point, Washington Image, 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, from Washougal, Washington Image, 2004, Mount Hood from Rock Fort Image, 2004, Mount Hood and The Dalles, Oregon
  1. Map, "Lewis and Clark Volcano Sitings", Lyn Topinka, USGS/CVO, 2002. U.S. Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory Archives.

  2. 1993 Map, Mount Hood and Vicinity, showing river drainages which flow into the Columbia river. (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River and the Sandy River. Map modified from: Brantley and Scott, 1993. U.S. Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory Archives.

  3. 1795 Map, Pacific Northwest and the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes the Columbia River ("River Oregan"), Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Hood. Original Map: A map exhibiting all the new discoveries in the interior parts of North America / inscribed by permission to the honorable governor and company of adventurers of England trading into Hudsons Bay in testimony of their liberal communications to their most obedient and very humble servant A. Arrowsmith, January 1st 1795. Published: London, 1802. Notes: Relief shown by hachures. Shows "Rivers added east of the Rocky Mountains, 900 L. 450 Lat.," from Tooley's Printed maps of America. In lower margin: London: Published Jan. 1, 1795 by A. Arrowsmith, No. 24 Rathbone Place. Includes notes. Reference: Tooley. Printed maps of America 137. Scale [ca. 1:3,800,000] (W 1600--W 400/N 700--N 250). Library of Congress American Memory Archives #G3300 1802 A7 Vault Casetop. U.S. Library of Congress Archives, 2004, "American Memory"

  4. 1804 Map, Pacific Northwest and the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes the Columbia River, Mount Baker, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Hood. Original Map: "North America". Year: 1804. Author: Robert Wilkinson and E. Bourne. Notes: Scale, ca. 1:9,000,000; London, R. Wilkinson, 12th of Aug. 1804; 1 map, hand col.; 51 x 61 cm.; Relief shown by hachures; Prime meridians: Greenwich, Ferro. -- Henry Stevens and Roland Tree, Comparative cartography, exemplified in an analytical & bibliographical description of nearly one hundred maps and charts of the American continent published in Great Britain during the years 1600 to 1850, no. 62a. In the Collection of Map & Geography Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois, Call Number: G3300 1804 .W5. Univerisity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Website, 2004.

  5. 1805 Map, Pacific Northwest and the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes the Columbia River, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Hood. Original Map: A map of part of the continent of North America : between the 35th and 51st degrees of north latitude, and extending from 89o degrees of west longitude to the Pacific Ocean / compiled from the authorities of the best informed travellers by M. Lewis ; copied by Nicholas King, 1805. Notes: Map covers western North America, from Lake Michigan and Lake Superior to the Pacific Ocean, including southern Canada and northern Mexico. Pen-and-ink and watercolor. Note from map folder: Map was copied from a sketch by William Clark, not one by Meriwether Lewis as indicated in the title. Copy sectioned and mounted on cloth. Library of Congress American Memory Archives #G3300 1805 .C5 Vault Oversize. U.S. Library of Congress Archives, 2004, "American Memory"

  6. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is to the south (bottom) and off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.

  7. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Map includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is just visible to the south (bottom) and Mount Rainier is to the north but off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.

  8. 1833 Map (section of original), Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Includes Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson. Note: Mount Baker is depicted (upper middle) but Mounts Adams, Rainier and St. Helens are missing. The Columbia River is shown as "Oregon River" at its mouth and "Columbia or Oregon R." further inland. "Wappatoo Valley" is labeled. Also shows Fort Clatsop ("F. Clatsop or F. George"), the Willamette River ("Multnomah R."), Sandy River ("Quicksand R."), John Day River ("R.La Page"), Walla Walla River ("Wallwullah R."), Snake River ("Lewis R."), and the Yakima River ("Tapete R."). Original Map: Oregon Territory, 1833. Creator: Illman & Pilbrow, published by Illman & Pilbrow, New York. Comments: Illman & Pilbrow is the engraving firm which copyrighted and published this map, the actual artist is unknown. Washington State University Digital Maps Collection #WSU323. University of Washington Digital Maps Collection #UW104. Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004

  9. 1837 Map, Columbia River with Mount Hood (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of the Territory West of the Rocky Mountains (1837) Author: Washington Irving, Publisher: Philadelphia, Carey, Lea, & Blanchard. Washington State University Archives #WSU555. Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004

  10. 1841 Map (section of original), Columbia River, west. (Click to enlarge). Includes Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Hood. Mount Adams is depicted but not named. From Wilkes, 1841, the U.S. Exploring Expedition. Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004

  11. 1841 Map (section of original), Columbia River, east. (Click to enlarge). Includes Mount St. Helens, Mount Hood, and Mount Jefferson. Mount Adams is depicted but not named. From Wilkes, 1841, the U.S. Exploring Expedition. Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004

  12. 1849 Map (section of original), Alexander Ross's Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of the Columbia to illustrate Ross's adventures. Author: Alexander Ross; Publication Date: 1849; Publisher: London, Smith, Elder and Co., 1849. Washington State University Archives #WSU478. Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004

  13. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John Day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003

  14. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, Mount Adams, Mount Hood (depicted but not named), and Mount Jefferson. Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002

  15. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Cascade Range to Walla Walla (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Mount Adams, Mount St. Helens, Mount Hood (depicted but not named), and Mount Jefferson. Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002

  16. 1860 Map, Columbia River, Washington State, and Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, (1860). This map dates between March 2nd, 1861 (when the Dakota Territory was formed) and March 4th, 1863 (when the Idaho Territory was formed from eastern Washington and western Dakota) Nearing retirement from a thirty year long and rather successful career, S. Augustus Mitchell printed this map showcasing Oregon, the Territory of Washington, and British Columbia. Washington became a territory in 1853, arguing that distances to Willamette Valley kept them from obtaining a voice in the Oregon territorial government. As this map shows, when it split from Oregon proper the Washington territory included parts of Wyoming and Montana and all of Idaho. Territorial government for Idaho would not be approved until 1863. When Mitchell retired he left the business for his son to manage. Washington State University Archives #WSU7. Washington State University Archives, 2004

  17. 1911 Map of Mount Hood (section of original), from Mount Hood and Vicinity 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Original map surveyed in 1907 and 1909-1911, contour interval of 100 feet. University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2004

  18. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River looking north, with Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Mount Hood, and Mount Jefferson, north-looking low-oblique photograph, NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-032. NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002

  19. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River Gorge (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River and the Columbia River Gorge, west-northwest-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. The Columbia River is running from the bottom (east) to the top (west). The Cascade Range is the dark color through the middle of the image, with Mount Hood on the Oregon side of the Columbia and Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens on the Washington side of the Columbia. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-092. NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002

  20. 1997, NASA Image, Columbia River looking northeast, with Mount Adams and Mount Hood (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Willamette Valley, Columbia Plateau, Mount Adams, and Mount Hood. In this northeast-looking photograph the Columbia River flows right (east) to left (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS085-734-085. NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002

  21. 1848, Etching of Mount Hood and American Village (Oregon City). (Click to enlarge). Etching by Henry James Warre, 1848. Oregon City was first settled in 1829. Dr. John McLoughlin is generally credited as the town's founding father, having contructed an early lumber mill there. Oregon City was an early capitol of the territory, until the territorial capitol was finally moved to Salem in 1851. In his book, the artist (Henry Warre) notes that a rival city had sprung up further down the Willamette during the summer of 1845 - this would become Portland, Oregon. Washington State University Archives Collection #WSU554. Washington State University Libray Archives Website, 2002

  22. 1850 Engraving, Fort Vancouver, with Mount Hood in the background. (Click to enlarge). Engraving by: Gustave Sohon, November 1850. Image from U.S. War Dept.'s Reports of explorations and surveys to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, 1860, v. 12, pt.1, pl.44. University of Washington Libraries Collection #NA4171. University of Washington Archives Website, 2002

  23. 1853 Engraving, Columbia River area indian camp at The Dalles, Oregon, with Mount Hood in the background. (Click to enlarge). Engraving by John M. Stanley, 1853. From the U.S. War Department's Reports of explorations and surveys to ascertain the most practicable and econmical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, 1860, v.12, pt.1, pl.43. University of Washington Libraries Collection, #NA4170. University of Washington Libraries Website, 2002

  24. 1867, The Dalles, Oregon, and Mount Hood. (Click to enlarge). View from Rockland, Washington (today's Dallesport). Photographer: Carleton Watkins. Oregon Historical Society #21577, #1100-A, Columbia Gorge Discovery Center Catalogue #2001.06.003. Columbia Gorge Discovery Center Website, 2004

  25. 1874, Engraving, Mount Hood from the Columbia. (Click to enlarge). By R. Swain Gifford, engraved by R. Hinshelwood. Oregon Historical Society #Orhi46142.

  26. 1879, Detail of engraving of Portland, Oregon and Mount Hood. (Click to enlarge). The Columbia River is just visible, middle left. The Willamette River is in the foreground. Also visible are cones of the Boring Lava Field, middleground. Created by E.S. Glover. Published 1879, San Francisco. "Bird's-eye-view", looking east to the Cascade Mountains. Original lithograph shows Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, Mount Adams, and Mount Hood, and also the Columbia River and the Willamette River. Reference #LC Panoramic Maps #722. Library of Congress American Memories Website, 2002

  27. 1884, Closer-in detail from engraving of The Dalles, Oregon, and Mount Hood. (Click to enlarge). Created by H. Wellge. Published 1884, J.J. Stoner, Madison, Wisconsin. Panoramic view of the city of The Dalles, Oregon, county seat of Wasco County, 1884. Original lithograph shows The Dalles, Mount Hood, the Columbia River, and the mouth of Mill Creek. Reference #LC Panoramic Maps #727. Library of Congress American Memories Website, 2002

  28. 1890, Detail from engraving of Portland, Oregon, with Mount Hood. (Click to enlarge). Created by Clohessy & Strengele. Published 1890, San Francisco. "Bird's-eye-view", Portland, Oregon, 1890. Original lithograph shows Mount St. Helens, Mount Adams, and Mount Hood, with the Columbia River and the Willamette River. Reference #75694939. Library of Congress American Memories Website, 2002

  29. ca.1910, Penny Postcard, Mount Hood and the Klickitat River, Washington. (Click to enlarge). L.Topinka private collection, 2003, used with permission

  30. ca.1915, Penny Postcard, Mount Hood from near The Dalles. (Click to enlarge). "Mount Hood as seend from bank of the Columbia River near The Dalles, Ore.", A.M. Prentiss Photo. #447, Lipschuetz of Katz, Portland, Oregon. L.Topinka private collection, 2003, used with permission.

  31. ca.1925, Mount Hood and The Dalles, Oregon, from Big Eddy. (Click to enlarge). Oregon Historical Society OrHi#100051, Photographer Benjamin C. Markham, approximate Photograph Date: 1925, Columbia Gorge Discovery Center Catalogue #2001.06.006. Image from Columbia Gorge Discovery Center Website, 2004, and additional information from U.S. Library of Congress Website, 2004.

  32. Mount Hood, Oregon, and the Maryhill Museum, Washington State. (Click to enlarge). Looking West at the Maryhill Museum with Mount Hood in the distance. University of Washington Photo Archives #WAS0564. University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2003

  33. Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Timberline parking lot. (Click to enlarge). Photographer: Lyn Topinka. USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004

  34. Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Lost Lake. (Click to enlarge). Photographer: Lyn Topinka. USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004

  35. Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, with Portland, Oregon, in the foreground. (Click to enlarge). Photographer: David Wieprecht. USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004

  36. 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Blurock Landing, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Blurock Landing is across the Columbia River from the mouth of the Willamette River, Oregon. From this location on the Columbia River Lewis and Clark spotted five volcanoes. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.

  37. 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Maryhill Museum, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.

  38. 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Ryan Point, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.

  39. 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Washougal, Washington, across from the mouth of the Sandy River, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.

  40. 2004, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Rock Fort, The Dalles, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.

  41. 2004, Mount Hood and The Dalles, Oregon, as seen from Dallesport, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.



Excerpts from: Gardner, et.al., 2000, Oregon State Archives Website, 2004, Scott, et.al., 1997, and Swanson, et.al., 1989
 

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09/14/04, Lyn Topinka