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The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark

April 1, 1806
Gathering Provisions - Cottonwood Beach and the Sandy River
 
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The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark

Map of the Journey
Volcanoes, Basalt Plateaus, Major Rivers, etc.

The Volcanoes
Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Mount Rainier, and Mount St. Helens

CALENDAR of the Journey
October 1805 to June 1806

Along the Journey
Pacific Northwest Maps - Columbia River, Volcanoes, Flood Basalts, Missoula Floods, Geology, etc.

The Corps of Discovery
The Journey of Lewis and Clark

About the Reference Materials
The Journals, Biddle/Allen, DeVoto, Gass, Moulton, Topo Maps, and others

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Links to USGS Websites highlighting the Lewis and Clark Journey

Resources
Publications Referenced and Websites Visited


PREVIOUS

March 31
On the Banks of the Columbia, Ryan Point to Cottonwood Beach Camp
April 1

Gathering Provisions,
Cottonwood Beach Camp and the Sandy River

Mount Hood, Sandy River, Sandy River in 1805, Lewis and Clark State Recreation Area, Puget Trought and Willamette Valley and Boring Lava Field, Cottonwood Beach, Mount Jefferson
CONTINUE

April 2
Gathering Privisions, Cottonwood Beach Camp and the Willamette River
 

On October 7, 1805, Lewis and Clark and the "Corps of Discovery" began their journey down the Clearwater River and into the volcanics of the Pacific Northwest. The Corps travelled from the Clearwater to the Snake and down the "Great Columbia", finally reaching the Pacific Ocean on November 15, 1805. Along the journey they encountered the lava flows of the Columbia Plateau, river channels carved by the great "Missoula Floods", and the awesome beauty of five Cascade Range volcanoes.

Map, Lewis and Clark in the Pacific Northwest, click for brief
 summary
[Click map for brief summary about the area]


 
Heading for Home - April 1806
Gathering Provisions - Cottonwood Beach and the Sandy River
 

Between March 31 and April 5, 1806 Lewis and Clark camped near present day Cottonwood Beach just upstream of Washougal, Washington.

Tuesday, April 1, 1806
Three Indians had followed us yesterday and encamped near us last night. On putting to them a variety of questions relative to their country, they assured us that Quicksand river, [Sandy River - see below] which we had hitherto deemed so considerable, extends no further than the southwest side of mount Hood, which is south 85 east, forty miles distant from this place;


Along the Journey - April 1, 1806
Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Washougal, Washington, 2003

Mount Hood:
Mount Hood, at 11,245 feet high, is the fourth highest peak in the Cascade Range and the highest in the state of Oregon. The peak dominates the skyline from the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties of eastern Oregon.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1993, Mount Hood and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1860, Columbia River, Washington, Oregon, click to enlarge Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Timberline, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, from Washougal, Washington
  1. Map, "Lewis and Clark Volcano Sitings"
  2. 1993 Map, Mount Hood and Vicinity, showing river drainages which flow into the Columbia river. (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River and the Sandy River. Map modified from: Brantley and Scott, 1993.
  3. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Map includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is to the south (bottom) and off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  4. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  5. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific, including Mount St. Helens (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  6. 1860 Map, Columbia River, Washington State, and Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, (1860). This map dates between March 2nd, 1861 (when the Dakota Territory was formed) and March 4th, 1863 (when the Idaho Territory was formed from eastern Washington and western Dakota) Nearing retirement from a thirty year long and rather successful career, S. Augustus Mitchell printed this map showcasing Oregon, the Territory of Washington, and British Columbia. Washington became a territory in 1853, arguing that distances to Willamette Valley kept them from obtaining a voice in the Oregon territorial government. As this map shows, when it split from Oregon proper the Washington territory included parts of Wyoming and Montana and all of Idaho. Territorial government for Idaho would not be approved until 1863. When Mitchell retired he left the business for his son to manage. Washington State University Archives #WSU7. -- Washington State University Archives, 2004
  7. Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Timberline parking lot. (Click to enlarge). Photographer: Lyn Topinka. -- USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004
  8. 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Washougal, Washington, across from the mouth of the Sandy River, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


that it [Sandy River] is moreover navigable for a very short distance only, in consequence of falls and rapids, and that no nation inhabits its borders. Several other persons affirmed that it rose near mount Hood, and sergeant Pryor, who was sent for the purpose of examining it, convinced us of the truth of their statement. He had found the river three hundred yards wide, though the channel was not more than fifty yards, and about six feet deep. The current was rapid, the water turbid, the bed of the river is formed entirely of quicksand, and the banks low and at present overflowed. He passed several islands, and at three and a half miles distance a creek from the south, fifty yards wide; his farthest course was six miles from the mouth of the river, but there it seemed to bend to the east, and he heard the noise of waterfalls.
"... Sergt. Pryor & three men was Sent 5 or 6 miles up Quick Sand River to make discovries & Several hunters went up the Seal River a hunting & others went out in different directions a hunting. a number of the natives visited us as they were passing down the River late in the afternoon Sergt. Pryor returned had been about 4 miles up quick Sand River found the current rapid & only about 4 feet deep ... the hunters tells us that the country back from the River is rich land some praries and rich plains &C. ..." [Ordway, April 1, 1806]


Along the Journey - April 1, 1806
Sandy River, Oregon, 2003

Sandy River:
The Sandy River Basin is located within Multnomah and Clackamas Counties in Oregon, and drains an area of about 508 square miles. The Sandy and many of its tributaries originate high on the slopes of Mount Hood, and then flows approximately 56 miles in a northwesterly direction to join the Columbia River near Troutdale, Oregon, at Columbia River Mile (RM) 120.5. The Sandy River Basin is comprised of several watersheds, many of which are uniquely distinct in terms of hydrology and geomorphology. Principal tributaries include the ZigZag River, Still Creek and Salmon River in the Upper Basin, and the Bull Run River, Little Sandy River, Gordon Creek, Cedar Creek and Beaver Creek in the Lower Basin. Many other smaller tributaries located throughout the basin contribute significantly to stream flows, and provide habitat for a wide array of fish and wildlife. Where the Sandy and Columbia Rivers merge, sediments have deposited over the years to form a large delta, called the Sandy River Delta, which covers approximately 1,400 acres. This area was designated a Special Management Area in 1986 and was purchased by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) in 1991. It is now part of the Columbia River Gorge Scenic Area. The Sandy River Delta was acquired to protect and enhance the natural resource values of the site, particularly the floodplain character and associated wetlands and to provide for compatible recreation uses. The mouth of the Sandy River is typically shallow and underlain almost entirely with sand and other fine sediments, and is influenced by tidal effects. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2003


Map, 1993, Mount Hood and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1833, Illman and Pilbrow, Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Camas and Washougal vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1948, Lady Island, Washougal River, Sandy River, click to enlarge Map, 1985, Lady Island, Washougal River, Sandy River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River with Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River and the Sandy River area, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Sandy River, Oregon
  1. 1993 Map, Mount Hood and Vicinity, showing river drainages which flow into the Columbia river. (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River and the Sandy River. Map modified from: Brantley and Scott, 1993.
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the Sandy River ("Quicksand R."). Map also includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is to the south (bottom) and off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1833 Map (section of original), Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Includes Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson. Note: Mount Baker is depicted (upper middle) but Mounts Adams, Rainier and St. Helens are missing. The Columbia River is shown as "Oregon River" at its mouth and "Columbia or Oregon R." further inland. "Wappatoo Valley" is labeled. Also shows Fort Clatsop ("F. Clatsop or F. George"), the Willamette River ("Multnomah R."), Sandy River ("Quicksand R."), John Day River ("R.La Page"), Walla Walla River ("Wallwullah R."), Snake River ("Lewis R."), and the Yakima River ("Tapete R."). Original Map: Oregon Territory, 1833. Creator: Illman & Pilbrow, published by Illman & Pilbrow, New York. Comments: Illman & Pilbrow is the engraving firm which copyrighted and published this map, the actual artist is unknown. Washington State University Digital Maps Collection #WSU323. University of Washington Digital Maps Collection #UW104. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  4. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Camas and Washougal vicinity, including the Sandy River. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  5. 1948 Map, Lady Island, Washougal River, Sandy River. (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Vancouver to Bonneville, 1948, Chart#6156, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  6. 1985 Map, Lady Island, Washougal River, Sandy River. (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Vancouver to Bonneville, 1985, Chart#18531, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  7. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River with Government Island, the Sandy River, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, September 1992. The Columbia River is flowing from bottom (east) to top (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  8. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River and the Sandy River area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River with Government Island, Lady Island, Reed Island, Sandy River, Washougal River, Cottonwood Beach, and Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington, September 1992. The Columbia River is flowing from bottom (east) to top (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  9. 2003, Sandy River, Oregon, near the mouth, looking downstream towards the Interstate 84 Bridge. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


The Sandy River in 1805:
In 1805, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark named a river on the south side of the Columbia River gorge the "Quicksand River." Their description of a wide, shallow river with a bed "formed entirely of quicksand," bears little resemblance to the narrow, moderately deep river we call today the Sandy River. What happened? The answer lay 50 miles away at Mount Hood. An eruption in the 1790's caused a tremendous amount of volcanic rock and sand to enter the Sandy River drainage. That sediment was still being flushed downstream when Lewis and Clark saw and named the river. Since 1806, the river has removed the excess sediment from its channel. The Toutle River in southwest Washington was similarly affected by the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens. -- Gardner, et.al., 2000


Lewis and Clark State Recreation Area:
Located at the western gateway of the Columbia River Gorge, the Lewis and Clark State Recreation Area honors its legendary namesakes who camped and explored here in November, 1805 and March/April 1806. The park is situated near the mouth of the Sandy River where it spills into the mighty Columbia River and at one of the entrances to the Historic Columbia River Highway. One of the most popular swimming spots on the Sandy River is adjacent to the park, as well as a public boat launch. A trail climbs the cliffs to Broughton's Bluff, which serves as a geologic boundary between the foothills of the Cascade Mountain Range and the neighboring Willamette Valley to the west. The park has interpretive signs and botanical trail. -- Lewis and Clark Bicentennial in Oregon Website, 2002, and Oregon State Parks and Recreation Website, 2002


If Quicksand river [Sandy River] then does not go beyond mount Hood, it must leave the valley a few miles from its entrance, and run nearly parallel with the Columbia. There must therefore be some other large river, which we have not yet seen, to water the extensive country between the mountains of the coast and Quicksand river [Willamette Valley]: but the Indians could give us no satisfactory information of any such stream. ......


Along the Journey - April 1, 1806
Puget Trough and Willamette Valley:
The Puget-Willamette Lowlands extend from the United States-Canadian border south to Eugene, Oregon, between the Coast Ranges and the Cascade Mountains. The climate is subhumid to humid. The northern part is a flat glacial plain interrupted by the complex bays and inlets of Puget Sound. The southern part of the lowlands consists of alluvial valleys along the Cowlitz, Columbia, and Willamette Rivers. Most of Oregon's population, technology and agricultural centers, and important transportion, power, and communications lifelines are located in the Willamette Valley of western Oregon. The lowlands of the Willamette Valley extend about 75 miles along the Willamette River and contain the major cities of Portland, Salem, Corvallis, and Eugene. The valley is part of the Willamette River drainage basin, which covers 12,300 square miles between the crest of the Oregon Coast Range on the west and the Cascade Range to the east. The Willamette River is the largest river in the valley and is fed by several major tributaries, including the McKenzie, Calapooia, Santiam, Tualatin, Yamhill, and Clakamas Rivers. The valley is the major source of ground and surface water for the population centers. -- Radbruch-Hall, et.al., 1982, USGS Professional Paper 1183, and Givler and Wells, 2001


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1833, Illman and Pilbrow, Columbia River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Willamette Valley, click to enlarge
  1. Map, The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, including Geologic Provinces and major Geographic Features (Click to enlarge). Map created by Lyn Topinka, USGS/CVO, 2002; Geologic Provinces based on "USGS/NPS Geology in the Parks" Website, 2002. -- USGS/CVO Web Graphics Collection, 2004
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Lewis and Clark marked the valley on the map and labeled it "Wappatoo Valley". From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1833 Map (section of original), Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Includes Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson. Note: Mount Baker is depicted (upper middle) but Mounts Adams, Rainier and St. Helens are missing. The Columbia River is shown as "Oregon River" at its mouth and "Columbia or Oregon R." further inland. "Wappatoo Valley" is labeled. Also shows Fort Clatsop ("F. Clatsop or F. George"), the Willamette River ("Multnomah R."), Sandy River ("Quicksand R."), John Day River ("R.La Page"), Walla Walla River ("Wallwullah R."), Snake River ("Lewis R."), and the Yakima River ("Tapete R."). Original Map: Oregon Territory, 1833. Creator: Illman & Pilbrow, published by Illman & Pilbrow, New York. Comments: Illman & Pilbrow is the engraving firm which copyrighted and published this map, the actual artist is unknown. Washington State University Digital Maps Collection #WSU323. University of Washington Digital Maps Collection #UW104. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  4. 1994, NASA Image, Aerial view of Washington and Oregon, including the Willamette Valley. (Click to enlarge). NASA Astronaut Photography of Earth #STS068-276-55, October 3, 1994. -- NASA Astronaut Photography of Earth Website, 2002


Geology of the Willamette Valley:
The Willamette valley consists of four sub-basins: the southern and northern Willamette basins, the Tualatin basin, and the Portland basin. The Waldo Hills separate the southern Willamette basin from the northern basin, and the Chehalem Mountains separate the northern basin from the Tualatin Basin. Northeast of the Tualatin basin, the Tualatin Mountains form the divide with the Portland Basin. The Willamette Valley lies within a fore-arc basin between the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the Coast Ranges that may have originated in early Tertiary time. Some of the sub-basins have accumulated several hundred meters of sediment in late Cenozoic time. The northern basins also contain lavas of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). Flows of the CRBG entered the valley approximately 16 million years ago through a low in the Cascade Range and spread into the Portland and northern Willamette basins. The Tualatin Mountains, Chehalem Mountains, Waldo Hills, and Salem Hills are largely composed of CRBG flows that dip inward toward the basin centers. Approximately 3.0 million to 260,000 years ago, the Boring Lavas were erupted from several vents throughout the northern Willamette, Portland, and Tualatin basins. Boring Lavas capped the Oregon City plateau and created many of the prominent small cone-shaped hills and mountains southeast of downtown Portland. Between 15,000 and 12,700 years ago catastrophic floods from glacial Lake Missoula inundated the majority of the Willamette Valley. These floods reached up to 120 meters above sea level covering the valley with up to 35 meters of sediment and depositing ice-rafted boulders foreign to the Willamette Valley as far south as Eugene, Oregon. -- Gannett and Caldwell


Boring Lava Field:
Metropolitan Portland, Oregon, and an area east of Vancouver, Washington, includes most of a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic field. which erupted from several vents throughout the northern Willamette, Portland, and Tualatin basins. The field was identified by Trimble in 1963, who named it after the hills east of Portland. It consists of at least 50 small monogenetic centers, composed chiefly of mafic andesite. The eruptive features mostly are short stubby lava flows, who compositions are very similar to comparable units in the High Cascades. The field ranges in age from about 3 to 1 million years. -- Allen, 1990, IN: Wood and Kienle, and Hammond, 1989.


Map, Boring Lava Vents, click to enlarge Engraving detail, 1879, Portland Oregon and Mount Hood, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Columbia River and Rocky Butte, Oregon
  1. Map, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, and the Boring Lava Field. Location and elevation of 95 vents. -- Allen, 1975
  2. 1879, Detail of engraving of Portland, Oregon, Mount Hood, and Boring Lava cones. (Click to enlarge). The Columbia River is just visible, middle left. The Willamette River is in the foreground. Also visible are cones of the Boring Lava Field, middleground. Created by E.S. Glover. Published 1879, San Francisco. "Bird's-eye-view", looking east to the Cascade Mountains. Original lithograph shows Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, Mount Adams, and Mount Hood, and also the Columbia River and the Willamette River. Reference #LC Panoramic Maps #722. -- Library of Congress American Memories Website, 2002
  3. 2003, Looking across the Columbia River at the Rocky Butte, a Boring Lava cone. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Decided to remain here [Cottonwood Beach Camp]


Along the Journey - April 1, 1806
Cottonwood Beach, 2003

Cottonwood Beach:
Between March 31 and April 5, 1806 the Corps of Discovery camped near present day Cottonwood Beach in Washougal. From this campsite, William Clark also led a group of men back down the Columbia to discover the Willamette River, which they had missed on both their outward and return voyages. Presently, the cities of Washougal and Camas, Port of Camas/Washougal, and the Clark County Parks Department, are collaborating on creating a regional park at this location and it has been named Capt. William Clark Park at Cottonwood Beach. -- City of Washougal, Washington, Website, 2002


Map, 1948, Reed Island, Steigerwald Lake, Cottonwood Point, and Point Vancouver, click to enlarge Map, 1948, Reed Island, Steigerwald Lake, Cottonwood Point, and Point Vancouver, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River and the Sandy River area, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Cottonwood Beach
  1. 1948 Map, Columbia River with Reed Island, Steigerwald Lake, Cottonwood Point, and Point Vancouver. (Click to enlarge). Cottonwood Beach is downstream (left) of Cottonwood Point. Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Vancouver to Bonneville, 1948, Chart#6156, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  2. 1985 Map (section of original), Reed Island, Steigerwald Lake, Cottonwood Point, and Point Vancouver. (Click to enlarge). Cottonwood Beach is downstream (left) of Cottonwood Point. Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Vancouver to Bonneville, 1985, Chart#18531, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  3. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River and the Sandy River area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River with Government Island, Lady Island, Reed Island, Sandy River, Washougal River, Cottonwood Beach, and Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington, September 1992. The Columbia River is flowing from bottom (east) to top (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  4. 2003, Cottonwood Beach, near Washougal, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


till we collect meat enough to last us till we reach the Chopunnish nation, to obtain canoes from the natives as we ascend, either in exchange for our periougues, or by purchasing them with skins and merchandise. These canoes may in turn be exchanged for horses with the natives of the plains, till we obtained enough to travel altogether by land. On reaching the southeast branch of the Columbia [Snake River], four or five men shall be sent on to the Chopunnish to have our horses in readiness, and thus we shall have a stock of horses sufficient to transport our baggage and to supply us with provisions, for we now perceive that they will form our only certain resource for food. ......


Along the Journey - April 1, 1806
The Camp - March 31 through April 5, 1806:
Cottonwood Beach, just upstream of Washougal, Washington.


"... we discovred yesterday the top of a high white Mountain some distance to the Southward our officers name it Mount Jefferson ..." [Ordway, April 1, 1806]
"... we saw a high mountain laying a great distance off to the Southward of us, which appeared to be covered with snow. Our Officers named this Mountain Jefferson Mountain ..." [Whitehouse, April 1, 1806]

While Ordway and Whitehouse entries are on April 1, 1806, Mount Jefferson was actually seen and named on March 30, 1806.


Along the Journey - April 1, 1806
Mount Jefferson, Oregon, with Portland International Airport, 2003

Mount Jefferson:
Mount Jefferson (10,495 feet) is a prominent feature of the landscape seen from highways east and west of the Cascades. Mount Jefferson is one of thirteen major volcanic centers in the Cascade Range. It has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1860, Columbia River, Washington, Oregon, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Mount Hood, and Mount Jefferson, click to enlarge Image, Mount Jefferson, Oregon, as seen from Highway 97 Image, 2003, Mount Jefferson, Oregon, as seen from Columbia Shores area, Washington
  1. Map, "Lewis and Clark Volcano Sitings"
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Map includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is just visible to the south (bottom) and Mount Rainier is to the north but off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  4. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific, including Mount Jefferson (section of original) (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. Mount Hood is depicted but not named. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  5. 1860 Map, Columbia River, Washington State, and Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, (1860). This map dates between March 2nd, 1861 (when the Dakota Territory was formed) and March 4th, 1863 (when the Idaho Territory was formed from eastern Washington and western Dakota) Nearing retirement from a thirty year long and rather successful career, S. Augustus Mitchell printed this map showcasing Oregon, the Territory of Washington, and British Columbia. Washington became a territory in 1853, arguing that distances to Willamette Valley kept them from obtaining a voice in the Oregon territorial government. As this map shows, when it split from Oregon proper the Washington territory included parts of Wyoming and Montana and all of Idaho. Territorial government for Idaho would not be approved until 1863. When Mitchell retired he left the business for his son to manage. Washington State University Archives #WSU7. -- Washington State University Archives, 2004
  6. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River looking north, with Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Mount Hood, and Mount Jefferson, north-looking low-oblique photograph, NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-032. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  7. Image, Mount Jefferson, Oregon, as seen from Eastern Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Image taken from Highway 97. Photographer: Lyn Topinka. -- USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004
  8. 2003, Mount Jefferson, Oregon, with Portland International Airport in the foreground. (Click to enlarge). On March 30, 1806, Lewis and Clark named Mount Jefferson. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.




 
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07/01/04, Lyn Topinka