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The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark

October 10, 1805
Reaching the Snake - Clearwater Confluence with the Snake River
 
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PREVIOUS

October 7-9
On the Clearwater, Canoe Camp to the Potlatch River
October 10

Reaching the Snake,
Clearwater Confluence with the Snake River

Potlatch River, Lapwai Creek and Spalding (Idaho), Junction of the Clearwater with the Snake, Lewiston (Idaho) and Clarkston (Washington), Nez Perce National Historic Park, Clearwater River, and the Snake River
CONTINUE

October 11
On the Snake River, Clearwater Confluence to Almota Creek
 

On October 7, 1805, Lewis and Clark and the "Corps of Discovery" began their journey down the Clearwater River and into the volcanics of the Pacific Northwest. The Corps travelled from the Clearwater to the Snake and down the "Great Columbia", finally reaching the Pacific Ocean on November 15, 1805. Along the journey they encountered the lava flows of the Columbia Plateau, river channels carved by the great "Missoula Floods", and the awesome beauty of five Cascade Range volcanoes.

Map, Lewis and Clark in the Pacific Northwest, click for brief
 summary
[Click map for brief summary about the area]


 
To the Pacific - October 1805
Reaching the Snake -- Clearwater Confluence with the Snake
 

Lewis and Clark's camp of October 8 and 9, 1805, was on the Clearwater River, a mile and 1/2 downsteam from the Potlatch River.

Thursday, October 10, 1805
A fine morning. We loaded the canoes and set off at seven o'clock. At the distance of two and a half miles we had passed three islands, the last of which is opposite to a small stream on the right [Catholic Creek]. Within the following three and a half miles is another island and a creek on the left [Lapwai Creek, site of today's Spalding, Idaho], with wide low grounds, containing willow and cottonwood trees, on which were three tents of Indians.


Along the Journey - October 10, 1805
Nez Perce camp near Spalding, ca.1898

Lapwai Valley and Spalding, Idaho:
Spalding, Idaho, is along U.S. Highway 95 approximately 10 miles east of Lewiston, Idaho, at the confluence of the Clearwater River and Lapwai Creek. The present day community and park area of Spalding (officially named in 1897) was originally called Lapwai and served as a traditional homesite for over 11,000 years to the Thlep-thlep-weyma band of Nez Perces. Each summer they moved to higher elevations to hunt, fish, gather roots, berries, and other wild foods, returning each fall in time for the salmon 'run' on the Clearwater River. The location was ideal where Lapwai Creek flowed into the Clearwater River. A large boomground where trees and branches washed downstream by spring floods were deposited provided enough firewood for a village of over 200 people. Winters were usually milder at this 700-foot elevation and the bluffs provided shelter from the winds and storms. In November, 1836, Henry and Eliza Spalding established the first mission to the Nez Perce. The Spaldings built their first home at Thunder Hill, 2 miles up Lapwai Creek but heat and mosquitos forced them to move to the banks of the Clearwater River where morning and evening breezes made for more pleasant living conditions. Rev. Henry Harmon Spalding wrote about his first view of Lapwai Valley in the fall of 1836. "We road on and entered the valley. It proved to be larger than we expected. It is on a little stream emptying into Koos Koos from the south. We found it well-timbered with cotton wood, balm of gilead, birch, and a few pine. Soon found good soil." In 1847, due to the murders of the Whitmans and 12 others at Waiilatpu, the Spaldings were ordered to close their mission. -- U.S. National Park Service Website, 2002, Nez Perce National Historical Park


Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Clearwater and Snake from Canoe Camp to the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1881, Snake, Clearwater, Grande Ronde, Salmon, click to enlarge Image, ca.1898, Nez Perce Camp, Spalding, Idaho, click to enlarge Image, ca.1900, Nez Perce man rides through camp, Spalding, Idaho, click to enlarge
  1. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  2. 1855 Map, Clearwater and Snake Rivers, including Lapwai Creek (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  3. 1881 Map, Snake, Clearwater, Grande Ronde, and Salmon Rivers (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of the Grande Ronde Wallowa and Imnaha Country, 1881". Map section shows the Snake River (name doesn't show), "Clear Water" River (central right, tributary to the Snake), Grande Ronde River (lower left, only "de River" shows, tributary to the Snake), Salmon River (lower right, tributary to the Snake) Lewiston, Central Ferry, Alpowai, Dayton, Pataha, and the Blue Mountains. By H. Chandler, Eng., Buffalo, 1881., Washington State University Historical Maps Collection #WSU468. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  4. ca.1898, Spalding, Idaho, Nez Perce Camp.(Click to enlarge). Photograph Date: 1898-1900. Photographer: Henry Fair. University of Washington Library Collection #L93-75.12. -- University of Washington Library Collection Website, 2002
  5. ca.1900 Nez Perce man rides through camp, Spalding, Idaho. (Click to enlarge). Photograph Date: ca.1900 University of Washington, Frances Gilbert Hamblen Collection #L93-72.108. -- University of Washington Library Collection Website, 2002


Geology of Nez Perce County:
Almost all of Nez Perce County (includes Spaulding and the Lapwai areas) is underlain by the Miocene basalts of the Columbia River basalts which make up the steep sided plateau south of Lewiston. The Miocene basalts filled in and flowed up an ancestral Clearwater River canyon about 17 million years ago. -- Digital Atlas of Idaho Website, 2003



Two miles lower is the head of a large island [Hog Island], and six and a half miles further we halted at an encampment of eight lodges on the left, in order to view a rapid before us [called "Ragid rapid" by Lewis and Clark, today's Reubens Rapid]: we had already passed eight, and some of them difficult; but this was worse than any of them, being a very hazardous ripple strewed with rocks: we here purchased roots and dined with the Indians. ...... After finishing our meal we descended the rapid with no injury, except to one of our boats which ran against a rock, but in the course of an hour was brought off with only a small split in her side. This ripple, from its appearance and difficulty, we named the Rugged rapid [Reubens Rapid].
"... at this riffle which we Call ragid rapid took meridian altitude of the Suns upper Limb with Sextt. 74o 26' 0" Latd. ... " [Clark, October 10, 1805]
We went on over five other rapids of a less dangerous kind, and at the distance of five miles reached a large fork of the river from the south [Snake River]; and after coming twenty miles, halted below the junction on the right side of the river [across from today's Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington]. ......


Along the Journey - October 10, 1805
Lewiston and the Snake River, ca.1900

Junction of the Clearwater with the Snake - Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington:
The Clearwater River joins the Snake River at River Mile (RM) 139. Today two major cities are located here: Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington. The cities were named for the explorers Lewis and Clark.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Snake River, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon, including the confluence of the Clearwater and
Snake, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Clearwater and Snake from Canoe Camp to the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1881, Snake, Clearwater, Grande Ronde, Salmon, click to enlarge Map, 1893, Snake, Clearwater, Potlatch Rivers, click to enlarge Map, 1996, Recreation sites along Lower Granite Lake including Clearwater confluence with the Snake, click to enlarge Image, ca.1900, Lewiston, Idaho, and the Clearwater and Snake Rivers, click to enlarge Image, ca.1900, Lewiston, Idaho, and the Snake Rivers, click to enlarge
  1. Map, Junction Clearwater River with the Snake River (#10), October 10, 1805. On this date the Lewis and Clark Expedition crosses from Idaho into Washington State.
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the junction of the Clearwater River ("Koos-koos-kee R.") with the Snake River ("Lewis's River"). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  4. 1855 Map, Clearwater and Snake Rivers, including the Confluence of the Clearwater (Kooskoosky R.) and the Snake (Lewis Fork) (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  5. 1881 Map, Snake, Clearwater, Grande Ronde, and Salmon Rivers (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of the Grande Ronde Wallowa and Imnaha Country, 1881". Map section shows the Snake River (name doesn't show), "Clear Water" River (central right, tributary to the Snake), Grande Ronde River (lower left, only "de River" shows, tributary to the Snake), Salmon River (lower right, tributary to the Snake) Lewiston, Central Ferry, Alpowai, Dayton, Pataha, and the Blue Mountains. By H. Chandler, Eng., Buffalo, 1881., Washington State University Historical Maps Collection #WSU468. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  6. 1893 Map, Part of the Snake River showing location of principal rapids (section of original). Includes part of the Clearwater River and Potlatch River and others. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Part of the Snake River from its mouth to the Grande Ronde, showing location of principal rapids". U.S. Engineers Office, 1893. Washington State University Historical Maps Collection #WSU586. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  7. 1996, Recreation sites along Lower Granite Lake, including the junction of the Clearwater River with the Snake River. (Click to enlarge). Lower Granite Lake is the reservoir behind the Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River. -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Website, 2004, Walla Walla District
  8. ca.1900, Lewiston, Idaho. (Click to enlarge). View looking down on Lewiston, Idaho. To the right is the old Lewiston/Clarkston bridge. Photographer: Wilkin Photo Service, Lewiston, Idaho. Photograph date: ca. 1900. Washington State University Libraries Archives, #11116 -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  9. ca.1900, Lewiston, Idaho and the Snake River. (Click to enlarge). View of the Steamer 'J.M. Hannaford' at a dock along Lewiston's Snake River Ally. In the background is the old bridge that connected Lewiston with Clarkston on the Washington side of the Snake River. Photographer: Wilkin Photo Service, Lewiston, Idaho. Photograph date: ca. 1900. Washington State University Libraries Archives, #11115 -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002

Confluence Overlook, Nez Perce National Historical Park:
Confluence Overlook is a highway pullout overlooking the confluence and valleys of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers. The pullout is about 8 miles north of Lewiston, Idaho, on the Lewiston Grade of U.S. Highway 95. The scene is dominated by a rolling grassy foreground that slopes steeply down to the Clearwater River, more than a thousand feet below. A sense of the confluence area and the scale of the surrounding uplands -- part of the Nez Perce homeland -- can be gained from this vantage point. -- U.S. National Park Service Website, Nez Perce National Historical Park, 2002



The country at the junction of the two rivers [The Clearwater and the Snake] is an open plain on all sides, broken towards the left by a distant ridge of highland, thinly covered with timber [Craig Mountains]: this is the only body of timber which the country possesses; for at the forks there is not a tree to be seen, and during almost the whole descent of sixty miles down the Kooskooskee [Clearwater River] from its forks there are very few.
"... The Countrey about the forks is an open Plain on either Side I can observe at a distance on the lower Stard. Side a high ridge of Thinly timbered Countrey the water of the South fork is a greenish blue, the north as clear as cristial ... " [Clark, October 10, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 10, 1805
Clearwater River, 1956

Clearwater River:
The Clearwater River drains approximately 9,645 square miles, and extends 100 miles north to south and 120 miles east to west. Four major tributaries drain into the mainstem Clearwater River: the Lochsa, Selway, South Fork Clearwater, and North Fork Clearwater Rivers. The Clearwater River has an international reputation as one of the best steelhead fisheries anywhere. The river, along with U.S. Highway 12, are part of the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. Developed recreation sites in the area are primarily for boating and fishing, with camping available in a few locations. The North Fork of the Clearwater and the Lochsa Rivers provide miles of tumbling whitewater interspersed with quiet pools for migratory and resident fish. The Clearwater was used as a passageway by explorers and trappers, and later by miners and loggers because it was much more tame than its counterpart the Salmon River. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2002, Visit Idaho Website, 2002, and Idaho Museum of Natural History Website, 2002, Digital Atlas of Idaho


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Snake River, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Clearwater and Snake from Canoe Camp to the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1881, Snake, Clearwater, Grande Ronde, Salmon, click to enlarge Map, 1893, Snake, Clearwater, Potlatch Rivers, click to enlarge Image, 1956, Clearwater River, Idaho, click to enlarge
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the Clearwater River ("Koos-koos-kee R."). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  3. 1855 Map, Clearwater and Snake Rivers, including the Clearwater River (Kooskoosky R.) (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  4. 1881 Map, Snake, Clearwater, Grande Ronde, and Salmon Rivers (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of the Grande Ronde Wallowa and Imnaha Country, 1881". Map section shows the Snake River (name doesn't show), "Clear Water" River (central right, tributary to the Snake), Grande Ronde River (lower left, only "de River" shows, tributary to the Snake), Salmon River (lower right, tributary to the Snake) Lewiston, Central Ferry, Alpowai, Dayton, Pataha, and the Blue Mountains. By H. Chandler, Eng., Buffalo, 1881., Washington State University Historical Maps Collection #WSU468. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  5. 1893 Map, Part of the Snake River showing location of principal rapids (section of original). Includes part of the Clearwater River and Potlatch River and others. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Part of the Snake River from its mouth to the Grande Ronde, showing location of principal rapids". U.S. Engineers Office, 1893. Washington State University Historical Maps Collection #WSU586. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  6. 1956, Clearwater River, Idaho. (Click to enlarge). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, Photo Archives #b404. Photo date: May 23, 1856. -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photo Archives, 2003


This southern branch is in fact the main stream of Lewis's river [Snake River] on which we encamped when among the Shoshonees. The Indians inform us that it is navigable for sixty miles; that not far from its mouth it receives a branch from the south [possibly the Grande Ronde ???]; and a second and larger branch, two days' march up, and nearly parallel to the first Chopunnish villages, we met near the mountains. This branch is called Pawnashte [possibly the Salmon ???], and is the residence of a chief, who, according to their expression, has more horses than he can count. The river has many rapids, near which are situated many fishing camps. ......

At its mouth Lewis's river [Snake River] is about two hundred and fifty yards wide, and its water is of a greenish blue colour. The Kooskooskee [Clearwater River], whose waters are clear as crystal, one hundred and fifty yards in width, and after the union the river enlarges to the space of three hundred yards: at the point of the union is an Indian cabin, and in Lewis's river [Snake River] a small island [Hirzel Island]. ......



Along the Journey - October 10, 1805
Snake River Steamer, ca.1900

Snake River:
The Snake River originates in Yellowstone National Park at 9,500 feet and winds through southern Idaho before turning north to form the boundary between Idaho and Oregon. It finally joins the Columbia River near Pasco, Washington, at 340 feet in elevation, 1,036 miles from its source. How did it get its name? To identify themselves, Indians living along the river in southern Idaho used a hand sign that resembled the movement of a snake. Although it didn't mean "Snake", that name was given to this group of people, now known as Shoshone. The river flowing through the Snake Indian lands was given the tribal name. Lewis and Clark traveled through this area on their journey to find an inland waterway to the Pacific. Many miles upriver from Hells Gate State Park, the Snake River winds through Hells Canyon, one of the deepest gorges in North America. This wild and spectacular area is best visited by boat; there are no roads leading through the canyon. Old homesteads, long-forgotten prospector cabins, and Native American petroglyphs offer a fascinating human story in the midst of the spectacular scenery. -- U.S. National Park Service, Wild and Scenic Rivers Website, 2002, and Idaho State Parks and Recreation Website, 2002


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Snake River, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Clearwater and Snake from Canoe Camp to the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1881, Snake, Clearwater, Grande Ronde, Salmon, click to enlarge Map, 1893, Snake, Clearwater, Potlatch Rivers, click to enlarge Image, Snake River, Washington, click to enlarge Image, ca.1900, Steamer on the Snake River, near Asotin, Washington, click to enlarge
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the Snake River ("Lewis's River"). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  3. 1855 Map, Clearwater and Snake Rivers, including the Clearwater River (Kooskoosky R.) (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  4. 1881 Map, Snake, Clearwater, Grande Ronde, and Salmon Rivers (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of the Grande Ronde Wallowa and Imnaha Country, 1881". Map section shows the Snake River (name doesn't show), "Clear Water" River (central right, tributary to the Snake), Grande Ronde River (lower left, only "de River" shows, tributary to the Snake), Salmon River (lower right, tributary to the Snake) Lewiston, Central Ferry, Alpowai, Dayton, Pataha, and the Blue Mountains. By H. Chandler, Eng., Buffalo, 1881., Washington State University Historical Maps Collection #WSU468. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  5. 1893 Map, Part of the Snake River showing location of principal rapids (section of original). Includes part of the Clearwater River and Potlatch River and others. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Part of the Snake River from its mouth to the Grande Ronde, showing location of principal rapids". U.S. Engineers Office, 1893. Washington State University Historical Maps Collection #WSU586. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  6. An arid region along the Snake River, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Photograph Date: between 1891 and 1936. Photographer: unknown. American Environmental Photographs Collection #AEP-WAS141, Department of Special Collections, University of Chicago Library. -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2002
  7. ca.1900, Steamer on the Snake River, near Asotin, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Steam rises from atop the 'Lewiston' steamboat as it passes Asotin, Washington, approximately 8 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clearwater River and the Snake River. Photographer: Wilkin Photo Service, Lewiston, Idaho. Photograph date: ca. 1900. Washington State University Libraries Archives, #11108 -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002


The soil of these prairies is of a light yellow clay intermixed with smooth grass: it is barren, and produces little more than a bearded grass about three inches high, and a prickly pear, of which we now found three species ......

"... worthey of remark that not one Stick of timber on the river near the forks and but a fiew trees for a great distance up the River we decended I think Lewis's River is about 250 yards wide, the 'Koos koos ke' River about 150 yeards wide and the river below the forks about 300 yards wide ..." [Clark, October 10, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 10, 1805
The Camp - October 10, 1805:
Lewis and Clark's camp of October 10, 1805, was on the north bank at the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake Rivers, where today, the "twin" cities of Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington, are located. The camp was on the Washington/Idaho border.



 
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06/17/04, Lyn Topinka