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Volcanic debris flows in developing countries -- the extreme need for public education and awareness of debris-flow hazards

-- Major, J.J., Schilling, S.P., and Pullinger, C.R., 2003,
Volcanic debris flows in developing countries--the extreme need for public education and awareness of debris-flow hazards: IN: Rickenmann, D., and Chen, C.L., eds., Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation--Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment, Proceedings of the Third International Conference, Davos, Switzerland, September 10-12, Rotterdam, MillPress Science Publishers, p. 1185-1196.

In many developing countries, volcanic debris flows pose a significant societal risk owing to the distribution of dense populations that commonly live on or near a volcano. ... Therefore, people living, working, or recreating along channels that drain volcanoes must learn to recognize potentially hazardous conditions, be aware of the extent of debris-flow hazard zones, and be prepared to evacuate to safer ground when hazardous conditions develop rather than await official warnings or intervention. Debris-flow-modeling and hazard-assessment studies must be augmented with public education programs that emphasize recognizing conditions favorable for triggering landslides and debris flows if effective hazard mitigation is to succeed. -- Major,, 2003

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