USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington
Battle Ground Lake, Washington
Battle Ground Lake State Park
- Battle Ground Lake
- Battle Ground Lake State Park
- Boring Lava Field - Battle Ground Volcano
- Basalt of Battle Ground
Topo Map, Battle Ground Lake, 1:25,000
USGS Aerial Photo, Battle Ground Lake, 1990
From: Washington State Parks Website, 2001
The lake's origin is volcanic, and is believed to have been formed as a
This type of volcano is the result of hot lava or magma pushing up near the surface of the earth and then coming into contact
with underground water. This is thought to have resulted in a large steam explosion, leaving a crater that later formed a lake.
This area was named for a battle that settlers at Fort Vancouver expected to happen in 1855
between U.S. Army soldiers and some Klickitat Indians. The battle never occurred.
Captain Strong, the post commander, allowed some Indians to leave the fort on the promise that
they would return after burying their chief, who had been accidentally killed. Most fort residents
believed a battle would ensue to get the Indians to return, and therefore dubbed the spot
"Strong's Battle Ground." The Indians, true to their word, returned peacefully, but the name took
hold. Later the area was simply referred to as "Battle Ground."
Maar Volcanoes Menu
Battle Ground Lake State Park
Visit A Volcano - Battle Ground Lake State Park
Boring Lava Field - Battle Ground Lake Volcano
Wood and Kienle, 1990, Volcanoes of North America: United States and Canada:
Cambridge University Press, 354p., p.170-172,
Contribution by John E. Allen
Metropolitan Portland, Oregon,
like Auckland, New Zealand, includes most of a
Plio-Pleistocene volcanic field. The
includes at least 32 and possibly 50 cinder cones and small shield volcanoes
lying within a radius of 21 kilometers (13 miles) of
Kelly Butte, which is 100 kilometers (62 miles) west of Mount Hood (Oregon) and the
High Cascade axis
-- (Web note:
Kelly Butte is approximately 4 miles east of downtown Portland, Oregon).
Clear Lake volcanics in California
lie as far west in the coterminous
United States. Unlike Clear Lake, Boring lava vents
have been inactive for at least 300,000 years.
Partial summit craters remain only at Bobs Hill,
33 kilometers (20.5 miles) northeast of Portland, and at
a low cone enclosing a lake north of Battleground, Washington,
33 kilometers (20.5 miles) north of Portland. Most
other volcanoes still have a low cone shape and are mantled with loess
above 122 meters (400 feet) elevation.
Below this they were scoured by the cataclysmic
Bretz floods from
Glacial Lake Missoula
around 13,000 to 15,000 years ago. Boring lava
is characteristically a light-gray phyric olivine basalt.
A specimen from Rocky Butte is predominantly labradorite,
with phenocrysts of olivine, mostly altered to iddingsite.
The volcanoes locally contain scoria, cinders, tuff, tuff breccia, and ash.
Weathering may extend to depths of 8 meters (25 feet) or more,
the upper 2-5 meters (5-15 feet) commonly being a red clayey soil.
Boring Lava Field Menu
Keith A. Howard, 2002, Geologic Map of the Battle Ground 7.5-Minute Quadrangle, Clark County, Washington:
USGS Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2395
The Boring Lava of Treasher (1942) forms many basaltic eruptive centers in the Portland basin (Trimble, 1963;
Mundorff, 1964). It is represented in this quadrangle by a field of olivine basalt flows and cinder cones mapped as the basalt
of Battle Ground (Qb). At least three vent sites for the basalt of Battle Ground can be identified: two cones of basalt scoria
(Qbs) mapped in this quadrangle, and the Battle Ground Lake maar crater 2 km southeast of them, beyond the quadrangle.
New dating from a flow derived from the northern cone and from a dike or flow exposed in the maar establish the age of the
basalt of Battle Ground as about 0.1 Ma (R. Fleck, unpub. data), making it among the youngest rocks of the Boring Lava
(Conrey and others, 1996).
Qb - Basalt of Battle Ground (upper Pleistocene)
Vesicular, gray to black, diktytaxitic, fresh olivine basalt, weathered to soil in upper part. Two flow units with massive centers and vesicular flow tops exposed on bluff above East Fork Lewis River. Correlated with Boring Lava of Treasher (1942). Thickness up to 40 m for flows and up to 60 m including basalt scoria subunit (Qbs) at cinder cones. Age 0.1 Ma based on preliminary ages using 40Ar/39Ar method (R.Fleck and R. Evarts, oral commun., 2000, 2001): about 107 ka at northernmost outcrop overlooking East Fork Lewis River (NE1/4 SE1/4 sec.14, T.4N., R.2E.) and 99 +/- 57 ka where exposed in Battle Ground Lake maar crater 0.5 km east of quadrangle; that crater contains sediment at least 20 ka (Barnosky, 1985). Also includes:
Red to gray; highly vesicular; includes agglutinate in SW1/4 NW1/4 sec.24, T.4N., R.2E. Forms steep hills, evidently cinder cones. Locally described in well log as multicolored pumice. Buttresses against bouldery glacial drift (NE1/4 SE1/4 sec.24, T.4N., R.2E.)
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06/10/03, Lyn Topinka